Alienated Labor

There has never been any human labour which is not in some sense “alienated”, involving toil, a falling-short of the product from the intended plan, some dissatisfaction in the work done. As Ruskin recognized, only God can delight perfectly in his work, create without loss to himself, without any failure to achieve his plan. This does not mean that this is not an ideal at which we should seek to aim, and to order human labour, but rather just that, because it is ideal it is not an immanent teleology which will emerge of its own accord, but rather it will require us to exercise our conscious judgment, it is a moral matter. (130-131)

John Hughes | The End of Work: Theological Critiques of Capitalism